Femoroacetabular impingement is caused by a structural deformity either in the femoral head or the acetabulum. This hip-joint deformity causes abnormal contact between the proximal femur and the acetabulum during terminal hip motion and creates unbearable hip pain. The problem usually presents in young adults and can often go undiagnosed for years. Femoral head or acetabular osteoplasty can correct the problem and reduce or eliminate the pain.
This surgery may be performed arthroscopically or with an open surgery depending on the severity and location of the abnormality. In arthroscopic surgery, the hip is pulled apart slightly, the site of impingement is identified and the labrum and acetabular cartilage are assessed for lesions. Lesions may be debrided by a shaver or radio thermal device. Any nonspherical sections of the femoral head or prominent sections of the anterior femoral neck are removed to improve the offset of the neck and increase clearance in the joint. The femoral head or acetabulum is reshaped with the focus on improving the clearance for hip motion and alleviation of femoral abutment against the acetabular rim. If the problem is more severe or in an area that cannot be reached by arthroscopy, the procedure is done with an open surgery where the hip is dislocated to allow removal of the spurs and repair of any torn cartilage. The aim of femoro-acetabular surgery is to improve range of movement and to reduce any unwanted contact in the hip joint.